No, you cannot upgrade a passport card to a passport book; instead, you need to apply for a new passport book.
If you have a passport card and you are eligible to use Form DS-82, you may apply for a passport book as a renewal even if it is your first passport book.
You can renew/apply using Form DS-82 if you have a passport card that:
- Can be submitted with your application
- Is undamaged (other than normal "wear and tear")
- Was issued when you were age 16 or older
- Was issued within the last 15 years
- Was issued in your current name (or you can document your name change with an original or certified copy of your marriage certificate, divorce decree, or court order)
Your passport card will be returned to you along with your new passport.